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Пензенская область

on 12 апреля 2016


Пензенская область – удивительный регион, обладающий всем необходимым для проведения отдыха. Красота и разнообразие местной природы, уникальное историко - культурное наследие, развитая инфраструктура для активного отдыха и занятия своим здоровьем – всем этим богата пензенская земля. Здесь приятно провести как короткие выходные, так и посвятить целый отпуск изучению самых необычных и интересных мест. Сотни тысяч туристов каждый год приезжают сюда, чтобы побывать в родовом имении Михаила Лермонтова «Тарханы», посетить древние подземные пещеры Троице-Сканова монастыря, увидеть истоки реки Хопер, окунуться в разнообразные святые источники, увидеть уникальный музей воды «Кувака», познакомиться с находками древнего Золоторевского городища. И еще десятки музеев и достопримечательностей хранят удивительные тайны истории России.




The Penza Region includes many nationalities. Representatives of the Slavic, Finno-Ugric and Turkish peoples live in the region. 

The earliest traces of human activity in the region date back to the Neolithic epoch. A southern cattle-breeding tribe came to the land in the bronze century later followed by a tribe of primitive farmers, cattle herders, and hunters. Local archeologists have also discovered settlements of ancient Mordovians, dating to the first century.

In the middle ages, together with Mordovian tribes a burtas-turkic tribe settled the land. During the domination of the Golden Hord the Tatar feudal state arose on trade ways.

In the 15th century Russians settled in vast territories of Prisurje, increasing in number through the 16th century. After the conquest of Kazan’ by Ivan Grozny and the fall of Kazan’ Khanate in 1552 the Penza Region was incorporated into the Russian state.

In the middle of the 17th century Russian discoverers of unknown lands approached the river Penza where it runs into the river Sura. Here by a decree from Tzar Aleksey Mikhailovich the town of Penza was founded in 1663.

Lieutenant-General Ivan A.Stupishin was the first Governor of the Penza Region from the 31st of December 1780 to the 13th of March 1796 later followed by the councilor of State, Major-General Mikhail Y.Gedeonov, from the 13th of March 1796 to the 15th of March 1797.

The history of the Penza Region is inseparably connected with many glorious names of statesmen, military men, scientists, cultural workers, and figures in education, medicine and sport.

The Penza region occupied the territory of 34129.1 square versts (1 verst=1.06 km). To the 1st of January 1911 total population of the Penza Region was 1909610 people. The Penza Region was formed as a subject of the Russian Federation in its present borders in 1939. It occupied the territory of 44.5 square kilometers and had a population of 1,550,000 people. Now the region occupies the territory of 43.3 square kilometers and it has a population of 1504.1 thousand people. The region is divided into 28 districts, 4 towns of district submission, 11 towns, 16 settlements of city type and 376 village administrations.

There are 11 towns and 16 settlements of city type in the region. In most cases they are not very densely populated (from 100 to 1,000 people). Some 50% of total population and 50.4% of rural population live in towns and settlements of city type. The Penza Region’s density of settlements exceeds average Russian showing: 3.7 settlements per 100 square kilometers in Penza and 2.0 – in Russia. Average density of rural population exceeds average Russian showing too (335 country people in Penza and 225 – in Russia).

 In comparison with average Russian showing, 35.5% are below the statutory working age in the Penza Region and 20.1% – in Russia. The economically active population (including the unemployed) is 726.9 thousand people. 92.3% of economically active population are farmers, including 72% engaged in production of material values.

The average population density in the Penza Region exceeds 4.1 times the average Russian showing (36.1 and 8.7 people per square kilometer), as for rural population, this showing is 5.7% times exceeded (13.0 and 2.3 people per square kilometer). The Penza Region’s major urban districts are Penza district with 206.3 people per square kilometer and Kuznetsk district with 67.1 people per square kilometer. Minimum population density is in southern agricultural districts (11-12 people per square kilometer). People of over 80 nationalities live in the region (there are 100 nationalities in Russia). The dominant nationalities are Russians (86.2%), Mordovians (5.7%), Tatars (5.4%), Ukrainians (1%) and Chuvash (0.5%).

The Penza region is an administrative-territorial unit and the subject of the Russian Federation enjoying equal rights. State power in the region is divided into legislative, executive and judicial branches, acting within their competence.

 The representative body is The Legislative Assembly of the Penza Region; the Regional Government represents the executive branch of power. Outside the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation on issues under joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the Penza region, the Penza Region exercises its own legal regulation, including the adoption of laws and other normative acts.

In accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation the Penza Region Legislative Assembly shall have right of legislative initiative in the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation.

The basis of regional economic system is State, municipal and private property.

The Penza Region is an industrial-agricultural region. Industry produces about third part of gross regional product. As for agriculture and processing industry, they produce fifth part of all gross regional product.

Perhaps the most significant resource is agricultural land. Agriculture is divided into farming and livestock-raising.

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